Coffee bean like any other is a seed at the end of day. Coffee roasting coaxes golden flavour from a bland bean. Unroasted beans boast all of coffee’s acids, protein, and caffeine—but none of its taste. It takes heat to spark the chemical reactions that turn carbohydrates and fats into aromatic oils, burn off moisture and carbon dioxide, and alternately break down and build up acids, unlocking the characteristic coffee flavour.
The degree to which coffee can be roasted, the range of conversion from fats to oils is what is regulated.
Light/Cinnamon roast - After several minutes the beans “pop” or "crack" and visibly expand in size, this stage is called first crack. These tend be lighter-bodied having higher acidity and with no obvious roast flavour.
Medium - After a few short minutes the beans reach this roast, they are sweeter than light roast. They have more body exhibiting more balance in acid, aroma, and complexity.
Full Roast - after a few more minutes the beans begin popping again and oils rise to the surface. This is called second crack. The flavours are - somewhat spicy; complexity is traded for heavier body/mouth-feel, aromas and flavors of roast become clearly evident.
Double Roast - After a few more minutes or so the beans begin to smoke. The bean sugars begin to carbonize. They become smokey-sweet; light bodied, but quite intense. None of the inherent flavours of the bean would be recognizable.
Though many degrees of roasts are done these are the four basic roasts which are done.
About the writer:
15+ years as avid coffee drinker, Nutan has had a chance to enjoy diverse coffee experiences -
tasting coffee beans, visiting plantations, roasteries and coffee shops, trying out coffees makers, making practices & recipes. The blog is an attempt to distill & consolidate all the wonder in the coffee world, with special attention on Indian traditional versions