Coffea is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make coffee. The two most common sources of coffee beans are "Arabica" and "Robusta".
Coffee plants are cultivated in more than more than 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee "berries" are picked, processed and dried to yield the seeds inside. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor, before being ground and brewed to create coffee.
Different names of Coffee:caffè ,kahve, Quqqa, Kaffa
The first record of coffee growing in India is following the introduction of coffee beans from Yemen by Baba Budan to the hills of Chikmagalur in 1670. Since then coffee plantations have become established in the region, extending south to Kodagu.
Coffee is grown in the southern states of India mainly in the hills of Karnataka, Kerela and Tamil Nadu. Karnataka accounts 53% followed by Kerala 28% and Tamil Nadu 11%. The total production of these 3 states amount to 8,200 tonnes. The finest coffee grown in the shade is said to be from India rather than coffee grown in direct sunlight any where in the world. There are approximately 250,000 coffee growers in India out of which 98% of them are small growers.
Coffee is also grown in the new areas developed in the non-traditional areas of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa in the eastern coast of the country and with a third region comprising the states of Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh of Northeastern India, popularly known as "Seven Sister States of India".
Almost 80% of the country's coffee production is exported. Out of which 70% is bound for Germany, Russian federation, Spain, Belgium, Slovenia, United States, Japan, Greece, Netherlands and France. Italy accounts to 29% of the exports.
Coffee was a preferred drink for many people in the southern states of India from the early 1900's. Consumption of coffee gradually increased in India and currently, the domestic consumption has seen an increasing trend as demand for coffee is estimated to grow at 16%-20% a year.
The drink that changed the world
Mark Pendergrast, author of 'Uncomon Grounds ', unravels the tale of the world 's favorite beverage.
People around the world are addicted to two black energy-promoting liquids. The first being Oil which is the most valuable traded commodity on earth. Coffee is the second most valuable, and it has become the beverage of choice to jump-start people on the go around the world. In short, coffee is just a berry, encasing a double-sided seed. Yet it has had a profound effect on human history.
On the mountainsides of Ethiopia, the native coffee tree grows to seven to ten meters in the dappled shade of the rainforest canopy. There are many species of the coffee plant, but only two have proven to be commercially viable.
Coffeaarabica, the original Ethiopian species considered superior in taste, accounts for 75 per cent of world consumption. It grows best in mild tropical climates between 1,000 to 3,000 meters above sea level. Coffeacanephora, also known as robusta, has a more bitter taste, twice the caffeine. It was discovered in the Congo in the late 19th century. Robusta is more disease-resistant, endures higher temperatures, and can be grown in a harsher climate than the arabica. Today coffee grows in a girdle around the earth between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, in over 50 countries, often on volcanic mountainsides.
The journey from tree to cup
Exactly how does your coffee arrive in your morning cup? It's an amazing process, and the amount of work and the number of people who contribute to that cup should make you appreciate every sip. Over 25 million people make their living from coffee in one way or another. Coffee is an incredibly labor-intensive crop, only a tiny percentage of the process requires the individual human hand. First the coffee seeds are sowed and nursed under a shade canopy, then transplanted to mountainside ranks, where the coffee-growers prune, fertilize, spray for pests, irrigate, and finally pick the coffee-cherries. The coffeecherries are harvested and lugged from the mountainsides in 200-pound bags.
The complicated process of removing the precious bean from its covering of pulp and mucilage is also by hand. How it is done varies, and depends on the climate. In Brazil, the complete coffee-cherries are often allowed to dry on tarpaulins before the pulp is removed from the beans. In more mountainous countries, the skin is often stripped off and the beans are then allowed to partially ferment for 24 hours or so before being washed, spread to dry for several days, and having the parchment – a tough husk around the bean – removed. The resulting green beans are sorted and graded, and bagged for shipment, roasting, grinding, and brewing around the world.
The roasting process itself is an art form. Most beans are roasted for about twelve minutes at 450 degrees. During the roasting, the coffee beans expand to twice their size, and about 500 subtle chemical compounds form the familiar taste and scent of coffee.
Instant (or soluble) coffee has been widely used for decades because of its convenience. The earliest version of instant coffee is said to have been invented around 1771 in Britain. The first American product was developed in 1853, and an experimental version (in cake form) was field tested during the Civil War. In 1890, David Strang of Invercargill, New Zealand invented and patented instant coffee (patent number 3518).
In 1901, the first successful technique for manufacturing a stable powdered product was invented in Japan by Sartori Kato, who used a process he had developed for making instant tea.
Instant coffee is of 4 types, Spray Dried Powder, Agglomerated/Granulated Coffee, Freeze Dried Coffee, Freeze Concentrated Liquid Coffee.
The primary advantage of instant coffee is that it allows the customer to make coffee without any equipment other than a cup and stirrer, as quickly as he or she can heat water.
Instant coffee is widely used all over the world thanks to its ease of use and long shelf life. But one needs to understand that quality plays a vital role in today's competitive market. Quality control is key for the success of an instant coffee manufacturer as it defines the company's success not only in the domestic market but also in a global level. Instant coffee has a strong future as its accepted by all age sectors.
We strongly predict that the Indian coffee industry will continue to grow and make 'Brand India' more penetrable and accessible to the global market.